Review of Marine Pollution in Oil Spill Cases in terms of International Environmental Law
Main Article Content
This paper will focus on one of the cases related to pollution caused by the disposal of oil spills into the sea, a case study of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In that matter, this paper can ''provide the stage'' for several relevant cases related to MARPOL 73/78 to build a discourse on environmental protection at sea based on the perspective of international environmental law. The writing of this paper uses a normative juridical legal research method. Judging from this Exxon Valdez case study, it can be agreed that this international treaty related to the prevention of pollution from ships or MARPOL has a renewal of its effectiveness if there has been an incident of pollution at sea in the past. The incident that impacted MARPOL 73/78 itself has also taught us the importance of protecting marine ecosystems.
B. Smith. State Responsibility and the Marine Environment. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
Birnie, P. W. dan A. E. Boyle. International Law and the Environment. Ed. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Boyle, Patricia Birnie Alan dan Catherine Redgwell. International Law and The Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Churcill, R. dan A. Kow. The Law of the Sea. Ed. 3. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.
Faure, Michael G, Han Lixin, dan Shan Hongjun. Criminal Liability and Vessel Source Pollution in European Union. Netherland: Kluwer Law International.
Grotius, H. The Freedom of the Seas, or the Right Which Belongs to the Dutch to take part in the East Indian Trade (1608). Diterjemahkan oleh R. V. D. Magoffin. Disunting oleh J. B. Scott. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1916.
Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP). The State of the Marine Environment. New York: United Nations Environment Programme, 1990.
Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP). Reports and Studies No. 50: Impact of Oil and Related Chemicals and Wastes on the Marine Environment. New York: International Maritime Organization, 1993.
Hughes, D. et al. Environmental Law. Ed. 4. Butterworths, London, 2002.
International Maritime Science Conference 2017. “Book of Proceedings.” University of Split (2017).
Soekanto, Soerjono. Pengantar Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: UI Press, 2007.
Tan, A.K.-J. Vessel-Source Marine Pollution: The Law and Politics of International Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Tan, Alan Khee-Jin. Vessel-Source Marine Pollution: The Law and Politics of International Regulation. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Vidas dan Østreng (eds). Order for the Ocean. London: Kluwer Law International. 1999.
Waldichuk, Michael. Global Marine Pollution: An Overview. Paris: UNESCO, 1978.
Ardia, D. S. “Does the Emperor Have No Clothes? Enforcement of International Laws Protecting the Marine Environment.” Mich. Journal of International Law 19 (1998).
Bakar, Hamad. “The Roles of Flag States in Maritime Security Governance: A Case Study of the East African Community.” Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 14 (2016).
Becker, Rebecca. “MARPOL 73/78: An Overview in International Environmental Enforcement.” Georgetown International Environmental Law Review Vol. 10. (1998).
Bodansky, D. “Protecting the marine environment from vessel-source pollution: UNCLOS and beyond.” Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991).
Campara, Leo. et. al. “Overview of MARPOL ANNEX VI regulations for prevention of air pollution from marine diesel engines.” SHS Web Conferences Vol. 58. No. 1004 (2018).
Carson, Richard T., et al. “Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez Spill.” Environmental and Resource Economics, 25 (2003).
Curtis, Jeff B. “Vessel-Source Oil Pollution and MARPOL 73/78: An International Success Story?” ENVTL. L. 679 692 (1985).
Darmawan, Aristyo Rizka dan Bill Arthur Sirang. “Environmental Aspect of Transportation at Sea: Case Study PT Pertamina v. Soumalia Marine Company (Comparative Study MARPOL and Indonesian Law).” Juris Journal (2015).
Djadjev, Illian. “How to Comply with MARPOL 73/78.” Public Interests and Private Relationships (2015).
Griffin, Andrew. “MARPOL 73/78 and Vessel Pollution: A Glass Half Full or Half Empty?” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies Vol. 1. No. 2.
Hwa, Han Chul. “Strategies to Reduce Air Pollution in Shipping Industry.” The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics.Vol. 26 Issue 1 (Juni 2010).
Iudicello, S. dan M. Lytle. “Marine Biodiversity and International Law: Instruments and Institutions that can be Used to Conserve Marine Biodiversity Internationally.” Tul. Environmental Law Journal 8 (1994).
Karim, Md. Saiful. “Implementation of the MARPOL Convention in Developing Countries.” Nordic Journal of International Law 79.
Mattson, Gini. “MARPOL 73/78 and Annex I: An Assessment of its Effectiveness.” Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy. Vol. 9 No. 2.
Szepes, Mark. “MARPOL 73/78: The Challenges of Regulating Vessel Source Oil Pollution.” Manchester Law Review Vol 2 No 73 (2013).
Taft, W. H. “The Fur Seal Convention and the Five-Year Closed Season Imposed by Congress.” American Journal of International Law 7 (1913).
van Truong, Nguyen. et. al. “Plastic marine debris: sources, impacts and management.” International Journal of Environmental Studies. Vol 76 No. 6 (2016).
Von Zahren, W. M. “Environmental Governance of the Seas, the Coastal Zone, and Their Resources.” Natural Resources & Environment Journal Vol. 9. No. 4.
Wang, Hui. “Marine Pollution: B. Vessel Source Pollution.” Yearbook of International Environmental Law. Vol. 25. No. 1 (2014).
Zhu, Ling dan Shu Kumar Agarwal. “A Review of the Legal and Policy Framework for Vessel Source Pollution in Hong Kong.” Ocean Development & International Law (2011).
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) beserta Protokol, Anneks, dan Perubahannya.
Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Pelayaran. UU No. 17 Tahun 2008. LN No. 64 Tahun 2008. TLN No. 484.
Akpama, Ikpi Ofem. “An Examination of the Effectiveness of Implementation of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention in Nigeria.” Disertasi Doktor World Maritime University, Swedia, 2017.
Copeland, Claudia. Cruise Ship Pollution: Background, Laws and Regulation, and Key Issues. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 2008.
Stenman, Caroline. “The Development of the MARPOL and EU Regulations to Phase Out Single Hulled Oil Tankers.” Tesis Master School of Economics and Commercial Law Goteborg University, [n.d.].
Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission. “Sanctions, Penalties and Fines Issued by OSPAR and HELCOM Contracting Parties for Waste Disposal Offences at Sea.” Makalah disampaikan pada Maritime Working Group, St. Petersburg, 10-12 Februari 2017.
Arof, Aminuddin Md dan Muhammad Helmi Zulkifly. “The Effectiveness of Port States Control Regime on Bulk Shipping.” MARINE FRONTIER 5 MIMET Technical Bulletin Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012).
Kuncowati. “Analisis Pengelolaan Sampah di Kapal dan Peran Awak Kapal Terhadap Pencegahan Pencemaran Laut dari Kapal di Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak Surabaya.” Majalah Ilmiah Bahari Jogja Vol 17 No 1 (Februari 2019).
International Maritime Organization (IMO). “International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).” Diakses 4 November 2021. http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx.
International Maritime Organization (IMO). “International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx. Diakses 4 November 2021.
International Maritime Organization (IMO). “International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).” “Status of Treaties.” http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/StatusOfConventions/Documents/StatusOfTr eaties.pdf. Diakses 4 November 2021.
Taylor, Alan. “Remembering the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.” The Atlantic. 24 Maret 2014. Diakses 4 November 2021. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/03/remembering-the-exxon- valdez-oil-spill/100703/.
United States Coast Guard. “International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships - MARPOL 73/78.” Diakses 4 November 2021. https://www.dco.uscg.mil/Our- Organization/Assistant-Commandant-for-Prevention-Policy-CG-5P/Inspections- Compliance-CG-5PC-/Commercial-Vessel-Compliance/Domestic-Compliance- Division/MARPOL/.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Marpol 73/78: Overview.” http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/OCPD/marpol.html. Diakses 4 November 2021.